Azerbaijan (Atlas)

 

Azerbaijan (Atlas)

Introduction

Current issues: Azerbaijan continues to be plagued by an unresolved nine-year-old conflict with Armenian separatists over its Nagorno-Karabakh region. The Karabakh Armenians have declared independence and seized almost 20% of the country’s territory, creating almost 1 million Azerbaijani refugees in the process. Both sides have generally observed a Russian-mediated cease-fire in place since May 1994, and support the OSCE-mediated peace process, now entering its fifth year. Nevertheless, Baku and Xankandi (Stepanakert, Nagorno-Karabakh region) remain far apart on most substantive issues from the placement and composition of a peacekeeping force to the enclave’s ultimate political status, and prospects for a negotiated settlement remain dim.

Geography:

Location: Southwestern Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran and RussiaGeographic coordinates: 40 30 N, 47 30 E

Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States

Area:

total: 86,600 sq km

land: 86,100 sq km

water: 500 sq km

note: includes the exclave of Naxcivan Autonomous Republic and the Nagorno-Karabakh region; the region’s autonomy was abolished by Azerbaijani Supreme Soviet on 26 November 1991

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Maine

Land boundaries:

total: 2,013 km

border countries: Armenia (with Azerbaijan-proper) 566 km, Armenia (with Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave) 221 km, Georgia 322 km, Iran (with Azerbaijan-proper) 432 km, Iran (with Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave) 179 km, Russia 284 km, Turkey 9 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

note: Azerbaijan borders the Caspian Sea (800 km, est.)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Climate: dry, semiarid steppe

Terrain: large, flat Kur-Araz Lowland (much of it below sea level) with Great Caucasus Mountains to the north, Qarabag (Karabakh) Upland in west; Baku lies on Abseron (Apsheron) Peninsula that juts into Caspian Sea

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m

highest point: Bazarduzu Dagi 4,485 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, nonferrous :-):-):-):-)ls, alumina

Land use:

arable land: 18%

permanent crops: 5%

permanent pastures: 25%

forests and woodland: 11%

other: 41% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 10,000 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: droughts; some lowland areas threatened by rising levels of the Caspian Sea

Environment - current issues: local scientists consider the Abseron (Apsheron) Peninsula (including Baku and Sumqayit) and the Caspian Sea to be the ecologically most devastated area in the world because of severe air, water, and soil pollution; soil pollution results from the use of DDT as a pesticide and also from toxic defoliants used in the production of cotton

Environment - international agreements:

party to: Climate Change, Ozone Layer Protection

signed, but not ratified: Biodiversity

Geography - note: landlocked

People

Population: 7,797,476 (July 1997 est.)

Age structure:

0-14 years: 33% (male 1,302,759; female 1,247,868)

15-64 years: 61% (male 2,315,272; female 2,446,087)

65 years and over: 6% (male 186,699; female 298,791) (July 1997 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.78% (1997 est.)

Birth rate: 22.89 births/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Death rate: 9.32 deaths/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Net migration rate: -5.75 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1997 est.)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female

total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (1997 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 80.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 63.52 years

male: 59.27 years

female: 67.99 years (1997 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.77 children born/woman (1997 est.)

Nationality:

noun: Azerbaijani(s)

adjective: Azerbaijani

Ethnic groups: Azeri 90%, Dagestani Peoples 3.2%, Russian 2.5%, Armenian 2.3%, other 2% (1995 est.)

note: almost all Armenians live in the separatist Nagorno-Karabakh regionReligions: Muslim 93.4%, Russian Orthodox 2.5%, Armenian Orthodox 2.3%, other 1.8% (1995 est.)

note: religious affiliation is still nominal in Azerbaijan; actual practicing adherents are much lower

Languages: Azeri 89%, Russian 3%, Armenian 2%, other 6% (1995 est.)

Literacy:

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 97%

male: 99%

female: 96% (1989 est.)

Government

Country name:

conventional long form: Azerbaijani Republic

conventional short form: Azerbaijan

local long form: Azarbaycan Respublikasi

local short form: none

former: Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic

Data code: AJ

Government type: republic

National capital: Baku (Baki)

Administrative divisions: 59 rayons (rayonlar; rayon - singular), 11 cities* (saharlar; sahar - singular), 1 autonomous republic** (muxtar respublika); Abseron Rayonu, Agcabadi Rayonu, Agdam Rayonu, Agdas Rayonu, Agstafa Rayonu, Agsu Rayonu, AliBayramli Sahari*, Astara Rayonu, Baki Sahari*, Balakan Rayonu, Barda Rayonu, Beylaqan Rayonu, Bilasuvar Rayonu, Cabrayil Rayonu, Calilabad Rayonu, Daskasan Rayonu, Davaci Rayonu, Fuzuli Rayonu, Gadabay Rayonu, Ganca Sahari*, Goranboy Rayonu, Goycay Rayonu, Haciqabul Rayonu, Imisli Rayonu, Ismayilli Rayonu, Kalbacar Rayonu, Kurdamir Rayonu, Lacin Rayonu, Lankaran Rayonu, Lankaran Sahari*, Lerik Rayonu, Masalli Rayonu, Mingacevir Sahari*, Naftalan Sahari*, Naxcivan Muxtar Respublikasi**, Neftcala Rayonu, Oguz Rayonu, Qabala Rayonu, Qax Rayonu, Qazax Rayonu, Qobustan Rayonu, Quba Rayonu, Qubadli Rayonu, Qusar Rayonu, Saatli Rayonu, Sabirabad Rayonu, Saki Rayonu, Saki Sahari*, Salyan Rayonu, Samaxi Rayonu, Samkir Rayonu, Samux Rayonu, Siyazan Rayonu, Sumqayit Sahari*, Susa Rayonu, Susa Sahari*, Tartar Rayonu, Tovuz Rayonu, Ucar Rayonu, Xacmaz Rayonu, Xankandi Sahari*, Xanlar Rayonu, Xizi Rayonu, Xocali Rayonu, Xocavand Rayonu, Yardimli Rayonu, Yevlax Rayonu, Yevlax Sahari*, Zangilan Rayonu, Zaqatala Rayonu, Zardab Rayonu

Independence: 30 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 28 May

Constitution: adopted 12 November 1995

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:

chief of state: President Heydar ALIYEV (since 18 June 1993)

head of government: Prime Minister Artur RASIZADE (since NA November 1996); First Deputy Prime Ministers Abbas ABBASOV (since NA), Samed SADYKOV (since NA), Vahid AKHMEDOV (since NA), Elchin EFENDIYEV (since NA)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president and confirmed by the National Assembly

elections: president elected by popular vote to a five-year term; election last held 3 October 1993 (next to be held NA 1998); prime minister and first deputy prime ministers appointed by the president and confirmed by the National Assemblyelection results: Heydar ALIYEV elected president; percent of vote - Heydar ALIYEV 97% Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Milli Mejlis (125 seats; members serve five-year terms)

elections: last held 12 and 26 November 1995 (next to be held NA 2000)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Azerbaijan Popular Front or APF [Ebulfez ELCIBEY, chairman]; Musavat Party [Isa GAMBAR, chairman]; National Independence Party [Etibar MAMEDOV, chairman]; Social Democratic Party or SDP [Araz ALIZADE, chairman]; Communist Party [Ramiz AKHMEDOV, chairman]; People’s Freedom Party [Yunus OGUZ, chairman]; Independent Social Democratic Party [Arif YUNUSOV and Leila YUNOSOVA, cochairmen]; New Azerbaijan Party [Heydar ALIYEV, chairman]; Boz Gurd Party [Iskander HAMIDOV, chairman]; Azerbaijan Democratic Independence Party [Qabil HUSEYNLI, chairman]; Islamic Party of Azerbaijan [Ali Akram, chairman]; Ana Veten Party [Fazail AGAMALIYEV]; Azerbaijan Democratic Party [Sardar Jalaloglu MAMEDOV]; Azerbaijan Democratic Party of Proprietors or DPOP [Makhmud MAMEDOV]; Azerbaijan Patriotic Solidarity Party [Sabir RUSTAMHANLI]; Azerbaijan Republic Reform Party [Fuad ASADOV]; Communist Party of Azerbaijan (unregistered) [Sayad SAYADOV]; Equality of the Peoples Party [Faukhraddin AYDAYEV]; Independent Azerbaijan Party [Nizami SULEYMANOV]; Labor Party of Azerbaijan [Sabutai HAJIYEV]; Liberal-Democratic Party of Azerbaijan [Lyudmila NIKOLAYEVNA]; National Enlightenment Party [Hajy Osman EFENDIYEV]; National Liberation Party [Panak SHAKHSEVEV]; Peasant Party [Firuz MUSTAFAYEV]; Radical Party of Azerbaijan [Malik SHARIFOV]; United Azerbaijan Party [Kerrar ABILOV]; Vetan Adzhagy Party [Zakir TAGIYEV]

Political pressure groups and leaders: self-proclaimed Armenian Nagorno-Karabakh Republic; Talysh independence movement; Sadval, Lezgin movement

International organization participation: BSEC, CCC, CE (guest), CIS, EBRD, ECE, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NACC, NAM (observer), OIC, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Hafiz Mir Jalal PASHAYEV

chancery: (temporary) Suite 700, 927 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20005 or P.O. Box 28790, Washington, DC 20038-8790

telephone: [1] (202) 842-0001

FAX: [1] (202) 842-0004

Diplomatic representation from the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Richard D. KAUZLARICH

embassy: Azadliq Prospekti 83, Baku

mailing address: use embassy street address

telephone: [9] (9412) 96-03-35

FAX: [9] (9412) 96-04-69

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), red, and green; a crescent and eight-pointed star in white are centered in red band

Economy

Economy - overview: Azerbaijan is less developed industrially than either Armenia or Georgia, the other Transcaucasian states. It resembles the Central Asian states in its majority nominally Muslim population, high structural unemployment, and low standard of living. The economy’s most prominent products are oil, cotton, and gas. Production from the Caspian oil and gas field has been in declin for several years, but the November 1994 ratification of the $7.5 billion oil deal with a consortium of Western companies should generate the funds needed to spur future industrial development. Azerbaijan shares all the formidable problems of the ex-Soviet republics in making the transition from a command to a market economy, but its considerable energy resources brighten its long-term prospects. Baku has only recently begun making progress on economic reform, and old economic ties and structures are slowly being replaced. A major short-term obstacle to economic progress, including stepped up foreign investment, is the continuing conflict with Armenia over the ethnic Armenian-dominated region of Nagorno-Karabakh. Trade with Russia and the other former Soviet republics is declining in importance while trade is building up with the nations of Europe, Turkey, Iran and the UAE.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $11.9 billion (1996 estimate as extrapolated

from World Bank estimate for 1994)

GDP - real growth rate: 1.2% (1996 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,550 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:

agriculture: 26%

industry: 30%

services: 44% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 20% (1996 est.)

Labor force:

total: 2.789 million

by occupation: agriculture and forestry 32%, industry and construction 26%, other 42% (1990)

Unemployment rate: 1.1% includes officially registered unemployed; also large numbers of unregistered unemployed and underemployed workers (December 1996)

Budget:

revenues: $565 million

expenditures: $682 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1996 est.)

Industries: petroleum and natural gas, petroleum products, oilfield equipment; steel, iron ore, cement; chemicals and petrochemicals; textiles

Industrial production growth rate: -8% (1996 est.)

Electricity - capacity: 5.24 million kW (1994)

Electricity - production: 16.63 billion kWh (1994)

Electricity - consumption per capita: 2,200 kWh (1996 est.)

Agriculture - products: cotton, grain, rice, grapes, fruit, vegetables, tea, tobacco; cattle, pigs, sheep, goats

Exports:

total value: $700 million (f.o.b., 1996 est.)

commodities: oil and gas, chemicals, oilfield equipment, textiles, cotton

partners: CIS, European countries, Turkey

Imports:

total value: $900 million (c.i.f., 1996 est.)

commodities: machinery and parts, consumer durables, foodstuffs, textiles

partners: CIS, European countries, Turkey

Debt - external: $100 million (of which $75 million to Russia)

Economic aid:

recipient: ODA, $14 million (1993)

note: commitments, 1992-95, $1,000 million ($185 million in disbursements);

wheat from Turkey

Currency: 1 manat = 100 gopik

Exchange rates: manats per US$1 - 4,230 (November 1996), 4,375 (April 1996), 4,500 (April

1995), 4,168 (end of December 1994)

Fiscal year: calendar year

Communications

Telephones: 710,000 (1991 est.)

Telephone system: 202,000 persons waiting for telephone installations (January 1991 est.)domestic: telephone service is of poor quality and inadequate; a joint venture to establish a cellular telephone system in the Baku area is operational international: cable and microwave radio relay connections to former Soviet republics; connection through Moscow international gateway switch to other countries; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat and 1 Intersputnik (Intelsat provides service to Turkey and through Turkey to 200 more countries; Intersputnik provides direct service to New York)

Radio broadcast stations: 1 state-owned radio broadcast station

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 2

note: domestic and Russian TV programs are received locally and Turkish and

Iranian TV is received from an Intelsat satellite through a receive-only earth

station

Televisions: NA

Transportation

Railways:

total: 2,125 km in common carrier service; does not include industrial linesbroad gauge: 2,125 km 1.520-m gauge (1,278 km electrified) (1993)

Highways:

total: 57,770 km

paved: 54,188 km

unpaved: 3,582 km (1995 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 1,130 km; petroleum products 630 km; natural gas 1,240 km Ports and harbors: Baku (Baki)

Airports: 69 (1996 est.)

Airports - with paved runways:

total: 29

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 6

1,524 to 2,437 m: 17

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 1 (1996 est.)

Airports - with unpaved runways:

total: 40

914 to 1,523 m: 7

under 914 m: 33 (1996 est.)

Military

Military branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Border Guards

Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age

Military manpower - availability:

males age 15-49: 1,982,747 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:

males: 1,596,087 (1997 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:

males: 69,524 (1997 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: 33.5 billion manats (1994); note - conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the current exchange rate could produce misleading results

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: NA%

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: Armenia supports ethnic Armenians in the Nagorno-Karabakh region of Azerbaijan in the longstanding, separatist conflict against the Azerbaijani Government;